Sutkowska, K., T. Czech, L. Teper and T. Krzykawski (2013). Heavy metals soil contamination induced by historical zinc smelting in Jaworzno. Ecological Chemistry and Engineering A 20, 12, 1441-1450.
The initial study of heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Ni, Mn) contamination was carried out on the 22 forest soil (podzol) samples and 5 waste samples from the historical Zn smelting area in Jaworzno, South Poland. XRD and pH analyses on the soil samples were done. The trace element concentrations were measured with the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) after mineralization in concentrated HNO3 (65 % Suprapur) and HCl (30 % Suprapur). Examined materials were ultra acidic to neutral, mostly very strong acidic. Total accumulations (mg · kg-1) of trace elements in the soil varied from 21.91 to 119.32 for Cr, from 1.4 to 51.16 for Cu, from 2.15 to 36.16 for Ni and from 16.33 to 869.19 for Mn. In waste samples quantities of the same elements equalled 45.55‑67.38 mg Cr, 19.5–244.74 mg Cu, 4.96–22.15 mg Ni and 30.75–369.11 mg Mn · kg-1. Vertical distributions of examined metals were determined in each of soil profiles. The research revealed heavy metal pollution of studied soil. Influence of the historical smelter on the pollution is inferred, which changed soil environment to dangerous for humans, especially due to close proximity of abandoned industry to built-up and recreation areas as well as community gardens.
Keywords: Zn smelting, heavy metals, soil contamination